Introduction

Within the lines of the School of Armour and 1 South Afircan Tank Regiment some sixty plus armoured, tracked and wheeled vehicles are displayed. Other equipment such as guns, radar, mine rollers and ploughs are also displayed.

"LESAKENG" (the corral for old horses) houses numerous armoured tracked / wheeled and other vehicles, mainly runners. The total structure as is stands to date was developed and constructed with donations from private funds, and good friends of the museum. "LESAKENG" was officially opened on the 30th March 2001. The enclosure is an ongoing process, as funds become available with the goal of a concrete floor.

One of these projects as called "adopt-a-brick", where for R50,00 a brick in the wall of Lesakeng can be adopted.

The application form is available in MS Word or PDF

 

Specifications


JEEP UNIVERSAL, CJ - 5/6 (USA)
Seating: 4

Mass Empty: 1 009 kg

Mass Loaded: 1 769 kg

Maximum Load: 760 kg

Engine: Model 6-238; 6 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 82 kW (110 hp) at 3 400 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate;' Dry Type Hydraulically Operated Gearbox - Manual - Synchromesh 3 Fwd 1 Rev Configuration 2x4; Selectable 4x4, High or Low range

Speed: Road - 95 km/h

Operating Range: 400 km road

The American Motor Corporation manufactured three basic Jeep models namely, CJ - 5, CJ - 6, and CJ - 7 aimed primarily for the civilian market, but were also purchased by some military units outside the USA. This version being a hybrid between the CJ - 5 and CJ - 6 referred to in the SADF as the CJ - 5/6. It was assembled by Motor Assemblies Ltd Johannesburg South Africa for Toyota South Africa. The Jeep was purchased by the SADF to replace the large number of Second World War ¼ ton Jeeps. It was later phased out and replaced by the Land Rover. The Parachute Battalion used the Jeep as a mobile platform for the 106 mm recoilless rifle.

PROTOTYPE ARMOURED PERSONNEL CARRIER, ‘BOSBOK’ (RSA)

Seating: 2 + 10

Combat Mass: 6,1 mt

Armament: Customer’s Choice;

Engine: GM; 6 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 115 kW (154 hp) at 4 200 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Single Plate; Dry Type Hydraulically Operated Gearbox - Manual; Constant Mesh High and Low Range; 6 Fwd 1 Rev Configuration - 4x4; Slip differentials

Amphibious: Wheel Rotation; Limited steering by front wheels

Speed: Road 90 km/h, In Water 4 km/h

Operating Range: 500 km



The amphibious ‘Bosbok’ armoured personnel carrier was manufactured by Sandrock Austral (Pty) Ltd as a potential contender for a infantry combat vehicle or as a security and/or internal security vehicle, circa 1974. This is one of the three proto-types built. The project was shelved for the Ratel ICV.

VEHICLE LIGHT, AMBULANCE, UAZ-452A (USSR)

Seating: 2 + 3 stretcher cases + 3 Seated Patients

Mass Empty: 1 870 kg

Mass Loaded: 2 670 kg

Engine: ZMZ-451E; 4 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 54 kW (72 hp) at 4 000 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual; Crash Type; 4 Fwd 1 Rev Configuration 2x4; Selectable 4x4; High or Low range

Speed: Road - 95 km/h

Operating Range: Road - 430 km


Manufactured by Ulyanovsk Motor Vehicle Plant, Ul’yanovsk, USSR. Although used primarily for civilian application, the vehicle and its variants are used in some numbers by the Soviet forces, especially this ambulance model. These models replaced the UAZ-450 series. The vehicle was acquired as “Spoils of War”, during the Angolan Campaign, circa 1981.

TRUCK 15 CWT, F15 GENERAL SERVICE SPECIAL PATTERN, FORD(CANADA)

Seating: 2 + 8

Mass Empty: 2 504 kg

Mass Loaded: 4 000 kg

Maximum Load: 762 kg

Engine: Ford, V-8 Cyl 900 Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 71 kW (95 hp) at 3 600 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual; Crash Type; 4 Fwd 1 Rev Configuration - 4x2

Speed: Road - 80 km/h

Operating Range: Road - 550 km


Ford Motor Company of Canada, Ltd assembled numerous Ford vehicles for the Department of National Defence and the British War Department during the Second World War and were referred to as Special Pattern Vehicles. The SADF had vast amounts of these vehicles which were used late into the 1960’s. These Ford vehicles were replaced with the Bedford Truck series. The South African built Marmon-Herrington Armoured Reconnaissance cars were designed around these Special Pattern Ford Vehicle, chassis. The cargo body fitted is not original. The chassis has been lengthened to accommodate this cargo body.

ARMOURED PERSONNEL CARRIER BTR-60 PB (USSR)

Seating: 2 + 8/14

Combat Mass: 10,3 mt

Armament: 14,5 mm KPTV Heavy Machine-gun 7,62 mm PKT Machine-gun

14,5 mm Ammunition: AP/T; API/T

Engine: 2 x GAZ-49B; 6 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled Gasoline; 67 kW (90 hp) at 3 400 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual; Crash 1 and 2; Synchromesh 3 and 4th; 4 Fwd 1 Rev Configuration - 8x8; Selectable High or low range

Propulsion in water: Single Water Jet; Trim Vane Front-end Direction change by Hydrodynamic Rudder and Front Four Wheels

Speed: Road 80 km/h - Cross Country 40 km/h. Water 10 km/h

Operating Range: Road 500 km - Cross Country 360 km

Unique Feature: Right side engine drives no 1 and no 3 axles Left side engine drives no 2 and no 4 axles Internally Controlled Tyre Inflation/deflation system


The BTR-60 Amphibious Armoured Personnel Carrier was developed in the late 1950’s as a replacement for the older and non-amphibious BTR-152. This vehicle was seen in public for the first time during 1961. The BTR-60 and it’s variants are normally used by the Soviet Motorised Rifle Divisions. The BTR-60 PB is the latest model to appear with the Soviet arsenal. This vehicle was a gift, in 1976, from the Israeli Armoured Corps and was extensively used during trials for a Infantry Combat Vehicle and the new generation armoured car project for the South African Armoured Corps. Circa 1979 The BTR-60 performed extremely well in wet and muddy conditions but fell short in South Africa’s desert and rocky areas.

ARMOURED PERSONNEL CARRIER, BTR-152 V3 (USSR)

Crew: 2 + 17

Combat Mass: 8,9 mt

Armament: 7,62 mm PKT Machine-gun;

Engine: Model ZIL-123; 6 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 82 kW (110 hp) at 3 000 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Twin Plate; Dry Type; Gearbox - Manual; Crash Type; 5 Fwd 1 Rev (5th Overdrive) Configuration - 6x6; Selectable Low or High Range

Speed: Road 75 km/h

Operating Range: Road 780 km

Fording: 0.8 m

Winch: Front-end - 5 000 kg, Direct Pull; 70 m Steel Cable. (The winch has been scavenged)


The BTR-152 was the first Soviet Armoured Personnel Carrier to enter production after the Second World War and was seen in public during a parade in Moscow in 1951. The first production models were based on the chassis of the ZIL-151 (6x6) truck but later versions (from and including the BTR-152 V3) were based on the chassis of the improved ZIL-157 (6x6) truck. The BTR-152 was replaced (1961) in most front-line Soviet Motorised Rifle Divisions by the BTR-60 (8x8) Amphibious Armourd Personnel Carrier. Large numbers of these vehicles remain in reserve and are still widely used in North-Africa and the Middle-East. The BTR-152 has been used by all members of the Warsaw Pact except Czechoslovakia. In addition to being used as personnel carriers it is also used for towing artillery guns, carrying cargo, mortar teams and for mine laying. This vehicle was acquired as “Spoils of War” from the conflict in Angola circa 1981.

TRUCK PERSONNEL / CARGO, GAZ-66 (USSR)

Seating: 2+12

Mass Empty: 3,47 mt

Mass Loaded: 5,8 mt

Maximum Load: 2 mt

Engine: ZMZ-66; V-8 Cyl, Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 86 kW (115 hp) at 3 200 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type Hydraulically Operated Gearbox - Manual; Crash 1+2; Synchromesh 3 + 4, 1 Rev Configuration - 4x4; Selectable High or Low Range Selectable Differential Locks (Transverse Type) Power Take - off for Winch

Speed: Road - 95 km/h

Operating Range: Road - 525 km

Unique Feature: Internally Controlled Tyre Inflation/Deflation System


The GAZ-66 truck is the replacement for the GAZ-63 and entered production at the Gor’kiy Automobile Plant in 1964. The GAZ-66 is widely used by the Soviet Armed Forces having twenty different variants to their disposal. The truck is also used in a variety of civilian roles. It has an all-steel forward cab control which is tilted for maintenance. Standard equipment includes an cab heater and engine pre-heater. Many vehicles are provided with winches. This vehicle was one of many taken as “Spoils of War” circa 1981, during the Angolan Campaign.

TRUCK GENERAL SERVICE 4x4 BEDFORD RLC (BRITAIN/RSA)

Seating: 2 + 22 with full kit; 24 without kit

Mass Empty: 4 672 kg

Mass Loaded: 7 672 kg

Maximum Load: 3 mt (SADF Specifications)

Engine: Bedford; 6 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled, Gasoline; 86 kW (115 hp) at 3 000 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual; 1st Gear Crash Type; nd rd th 2 , 3 and 4 Synchromesh 4 Fwd 1 Rev Selectable 4x4 - High or Low range

Speed: Road - 80 km/h

Operating Range: Road - 320 km


For the replacement of Second World War trucks, three new 3 000 kg (4x4) trucks were introduced into the British Army in 1952. The vehicle was based on a civilian truck chassis. These trucks remained in service in the British Army until the introduction of the new Bedford MK series in the early 1960’s. The Bedford vehicles in their different variants were also introduced into the SADF to replace their older range of Ford vehicles. General Motors SA, Ltd, with the factory in Port Elizabeth, manufactured these Bedfords for the SADF. These Bedford vehicles with long and short wheel base were widely used by the SADF eg, General Service, Pantry, Water-Bunker, Fuel-Bunkers, Gun Tractors, Tipper Trucks etc. Some of the vehicles were also equipped with winches. These vehicles, being so high, were referred to by troops as “Hemelbesems” (Sky Scrapers).

ARMOURED PERSONNEL CARRIER, SARACEN Mk 3 SA (BRITAIN/RSA)

Crew: 2 + 10

Combat Mass: 10.1 mt

Armament: 7,62 mm Browning Machine-gun 4 x 81 mm Smoke Generator Launchers 2 -in Mortar (Smoke bombs only)

Engine: Rolls Royce; B80 Mk 3A or Mk 6A; 8 Cyl in-Line Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 119 kW (160 hp) at 3 750 r/min

Transmission: Gearbox - Daimler; Pre-selective; Epicycle; 5 Speed; Gear change pedal Clutch - Fluid Coupling Transfer Box - Forward and Reverse Configuration - 6x6

Speed: Road 72 km/h - Cross Country

Operating Range: 32 km/h Road 400 km - Cross Country 209 km


Shortly after the Second World War the then British Fighting Vehicle Research and Development establishment began the design of the FV 600 series 6x6 wheeled armoured vehicles. Design parent for the FV 600 series was Alvis Ltd of Coventry which completed the first prototype Saracen in 1952, and in December of the same year started production with a total amount of 1 838 vehicles built by 1972. The Saracen was the standard APC of the British army and was replaced from 1963 by a tracked APC. To date the Saracen is still in service with the British Army, mainly for internal security operations in Northern Ireland. In 1953 South Africa purchased 10 Saracen Mk 1’s for evaluation. A further order of 270 was placed with Alvis Ltd the following year, arriving in South Africa in 1956. The majority of the vehicles, on arrival, were placed in storage to form part of the Centurion, Saracen and Ferret fleet for the South African Armoured Corps. A quantity were used for training. Eight Saracens were allocated to the South African Police for internal security operations. Through lack of engine spares caused by the United Nations arms embargo the Saracens were withdrawn from service in 1975 and once again placed in storage as reserve. In 1977 South Africa started on a modification and upgrading program. After extensive trials which lasted until 1979 a refurbishing contract was awarded to the South African Railway Workshop, Uitenhage, in the Eastern Cape. Refurbishing took place from 1979 to 1981, modifying 270 vehicles. These modified Saracens were again introduced to the South African army until they were withdrawn from service in 1991 to be replaced with the Ratel Infantry Combat Vehicle. A quantity of these Saracens were also sold to local security firms.

PROTOTYPE, CLASS 3 NEW GENERATION ARMOURED CAR PROJECT (RSA)

Crew: 4

Combat Mass: 41, 049 mt

Armament: 105 mm (L7) GT-3 Gun; 2 x 7,62 mm Browning Machine-gun; 60 mm Breech Loading Mortar; 8 x 81 mm Smoke Generator Launchers; 105mm - APDS/T L52; APFSDS/T; HEAT/T; HESH/T WP/T

Engine: MTU-V6-6396; V-6 Cyl; Turbo Charged; Liquid Cooled Diesel; 588 kW (786 hp) at 2 400 r/min

Transmission: ZF4HP 2000; Fully automatic; 4 Fwd 1 Rev; Manual Selection; 1-4 and Rev; Configuration - 8x8; Transverse and Longitudinal Differential Locks

Speed: Road 86 km/h

Operating Range: Road 1 000 km

Unique Feature: Hydro-Neumatic suspension system; Turret mounted 60mm breech-loading mortar


This vehicle manufactured, circa 1982/83, was the heaviest of the three different classes built for evaluation. The suspension was hydro-pneumatic with a turret designed to accommodate a 105 mm L7 tank gun. The vehicle was built in South Africa by Sandock Austral (Pty) Ltd who was technically assisted by an West German firm. The project was shelved in favour of the Class 2B.

TRUCK PERSONNEL/CARGO, BEDFORD (BRITAIN/RSA)

Seating: 2 + 18 Full kit; 20 without kit

Mass Empty: 4 450 kg

Mass Loaded: 5 550 kg

Maximum Load: 3 mt (SADF Specifications)

Engine: Bedford; 6 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled, Diesel; 80 kW (107 hp) at 2 800 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plat;- Dry Type Gearbox - Manua;- 1st Gear Crash Type nd rd th 2 , 3 and 4 Synchromesh 4 Fwd 1 Rev Configuration - 4x2

Speed: Road - 73 km/h

Operating Range: Road - 560 km


In the early 1960’s the British Army issued a requirement for a 4x4, 4 mt, load carrying truck to replace their current older model Bedford trucks. After comparative trials Vauxhall Motors Ltd Bedford truck was accepted and became the standard truck, although large numbers of the earlier Bedford trucks remained in service. This 4x2 variant was widely used for a wide variety of roles by all three British services including driver training, cargo carriers and aircraft refueling. General Motors SA Ltd with their factory in Port Elizabeth manufactured these Bedfords for the SADF. These Bedfords, being 4x2, were mainly used by all forces for on-road cargo/personnel carriers.

TRUCK PERSONNEL / CARGO, BERLIET GBC 8 KT TRAMAGAL (Portugal)

Seating: 3 + 22

Mass Empty: 9.4 mt

Mass Loaded: 13.4 mt

Maximum Load: 4 mt

Engine: Berliet Mk 520; 5 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled; Multi-fuel; 93 kW (125 hp) at 2 100 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual; Crash Type; 6 Fwd 1 Rev Configuration 4 x 4 Selectable 6x6; High or Low Range; Differential Locks Winch Drive Gearbox Provided

Speed: Road - 80 km/h

Operating Range: Road - 800 km


This 6x6 truck was developed in 1950 for use in North-Africa and was subsequently adopted by the French Army. The two-door cab has a removable top and doors. The windscreen can be folded forward onto the bonnet. Rear cargo area can be fitted with bench-type seats down the middle if required. The height of the bows can be adjusted for road or rail transport. Optional equipment includes a Pan-Bonnier winch with a capacity of between 5 000 and 7 000 kg. Different variants of the vehicle include a short-wheel base versions, 4x4 version, light/ medium recovery vehicle, tanker, tipper and also a tractor truck. This vehicle was acquired as "Spoils of War" during the Angolan campaign, circa 1981

PROTOTYPE, CLASS 2C, ARMOURED WEAPON PLATFORM (RSA)

Crew: Dependent on configuration

Combat Mass: 20 mt

Armament: Customer’s choice

Engine: MTU-V-6-6396; V-6 Cyl; Turbo Charged; Liquid Cooled; Diesel; 588 kW (786 hp) at 2 400 r/min

Transmission: ZF4HP 2000; Fully automatic; 4 forward 1 Rev; Manual selection, 1-4 and Rev Configuration - 8x8; Transverse and Longitudinal Differential locks

Speed: Road 86 km/h

Operating Range: Road 1 200 km

Purpose: Weapon Platform for Armoured cars, Personnel carriers; Ambulance etc.

Unique Feature: Front Mounted Engine


This weapon platform, manufactured by Sandock Austral (Pty) Ltd circa 1984/85, was designed to introduce to the user, Armour and Infantry, a new concept for front-mounted engine variants, for use as a armoured car, infantry combat vehicle, ambulance, command vehicles etc. The project was terminated on the acceptance of the Ratel ICV Configuration.

PROTOTYPE, CLASS 2B, NEW GENERATION ARMOURED CAR PROJECT (RSA)

Crew: 4

Combat Mass: 26, 259 mt

Armament: 76 mm GT-4 Gun; 2 x 7,62 mm Browning Machine-gun; 60mm Breech Loading Mortar; 6 x 81 mm Smoke Generator Launchers;

76 mm Ammunition: 76mm GUN: APFSD/T; HE 60mm Mortar: HE; Smoke, Canister Illuminating

Engine: ADE; 90 V; 10 Cyl; Turbo Charged; Liquid Cooled; Inter-cooled Diesel; 416 kW (558 hp) at 2 100 r/min

Transmission: HSV 106; Fully automatic; 6 Fwd 1 Rev; Manual Selection 1-6 and Rev; Configuration - 4x4 or 8x8; High and Low Range Transverse and Longitudinal Differential Locks

Speed: Road 120 km/h - Cross Country 50 km/h

Operating Range: Road 750 km - Cross Country 300 km/h

Unique Feature: Selectable Skid Turn; Both Directions at 10 km/h Turret Mounted 60mm Mortar


In 1982/83 three Proto vehicles were built featuring different drive trains and suspensions. These Prototypes were evaluated and after extensive trials ‘Proto 2B’ was accepted as the criteria for the new generation armoured car. This vehicle on display was built by Sandock Austral (Pty) Ltd Two modified class two models were built by Sandock-Austral Ltd for further trials which started in 1984 and continued into 1985. During 1987 the Research and Development section of the School of Armour evaluated the first four production model Rooikat Armoured cars. ‘Operation Musketeer’.

TRUCK GENERAL SERVICE, ZIL-131 (USSR)

Seating: 1 + 2

Mass Empty: 3,5 mt

Maximum Load: 5 mt (Road)

Engine: ZIL-131; V-8 Cyl; Liquid Cooled; Gasoline, 112 kW (150 hp) at 3 000 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual; Crash Type; 5 Fwd 1 Rev Configuration - 6x4 Selectable 6x6; High or Low range

Speed: Road 80 km/h

Operating Range: Road 525 km

Unique Feature: Internally controlled tyre inflation/deflation system


The ZIL-131 truck series entered production in December 1966 and is the replacement for the ZIL-157 versions. Approximately 15 variants are available. One of the latest version are equipped with a 140mm BM-14-16 multiple rocket system. The vehicles are still in use in the Soviet Armed Forces and other Soviet countries. The front axle is automatically engaged when the driver selects first gear, and the driver can also engage the front axle manually when in second gear. This vehicle was acquired as "Spoils of War" during the Angolan Campaign, circa 1981.

TEST-BED, 8X8, CONCEPT 3 NEW GENERATION ARMOURED CAR PROJECT (RSA)

Crew: 4

Combat Mass: 14,5 mt

Armament: 77 mm Mk 2 Gun, Manufactured in Britain for the Comet 1 Cruiser Tank (Trials only);

Ammunition: Shot Practice (Shooting trials);

Engine: Cummins 210-NA; V-8 Cyl; Liquid Cooled Diesel; 156 kW (209 hp) at 2 300 r/min

Transmission: Allison; MT650; Fully automatic; 5 Fwd 1 Rev; Manual selection; 1-5 and Rev Configuration - 8x8; Transverse Differential Locks

Speed: Road - 83 km/h

Operating Range: Road - 175 km

Purpose: New Generation Armoured Car Project


This test-bed was built around a Saracen Armoured Personnel Carrier side wishbone and torsion bar suspension and bevel box drive line system. The test-bed was built by Sandock Austral (Pty) Ltd in Boksburg circa 1979. The test-bed was designed to test Concept design features, Suspension features, Soil mechanics, Gun firing stress mechanics. Firing trials were carried out with the muzzle brake fitted and removed. Firing angle stress was tested by positioning the gun over various positions in regard, to the vehicle hull. Soil mechanics and suspension tests were carried out on specially prepared lanes assimilating most of the soils found in South Africa. The test area was prepared by the Potchefstroom University who also co-ordinated the tests.

TRUCK COMMAND/COMMUNICATOION GAZ-66 (USSR)

Seating: 2 + 2/3

Mass Empty: 3,47 mt

Mass Loaded: 3,8 mt

Maximum Load: 2 mt

Engine: ZMZ-66; V-8 Cyl, Liquid Cooled, Gasoline; 86 kW (115 hp) at 3 200 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type; Hydraulically Operated Gearbox - Manual; Crash Type; 4 Fwd 1 Rev Configuration 4x4; Selectable High or Low Range Differential Locks Power Take - off for externally mounted generator

Speed: Road - 90 km/h

Operating Range: 525 km


The chassis of this vehicle is the same as the truck personnel/cargo GAZ-66 and is fitted with all the modifications on it as the vehicles progressed through the years. This version is fitted with a command/communication van body, fitted with all the required radio sets, tables, map board, storage cupboards etc to fulfill its main task. Numerous external electrical fittings are provided. A vehicle driven 2,2kw generator supplies the necessary electrical current for battery charging. The vehicle must be stationary with the engine running to drive this generator via a power-take-off from the transfer box. This vehicle was acquired as "Spoils-of-War" during the Angolan Campaign, circa 1981

TEST-BED, 8X8, CONCEPT 1, NEW GENERATION ARMOURED CAR PROJECT (RSA)

Crew: 4

Combat Mass: 19 mt

Armament: 77 mm Mk 2 Gun, Manufactured in Britain for the Comet 1 Cruiser Tank (Trials only);

Ammunition: Shot Practice (Shooting Trials);

Engine: Model S12-DA, Bussing; 6 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled; Diesel; 230 kW (308 hp) at 2 250 r/min

Transmission: RENK; HSV-106; Fully Automatic; 6 Fwd 1 Rev; Manual selection 1 - 6th and Rev Configuration - 8x8; Transverse and Longitudinal Differential locks

Speed: Road 105 km/h

Operating Range: Road 960 km

Purpose: New Generation Armoured Car Project


This test-bed was built around a Ratel Infantry Combat vehicle’s is rigid axle and drive line system. The test-bed was built by Sandock Austral (Pty) Ltd in Boksburg circa 1979. The test-bed was designed to test Concept design features, Suspension features, Soil mechanics and Gun firing stress mechanics. Firing trials were carried out with the muzzle brake fitted and removed. Firing angle stress was tested by positioning the gun over various positions in regard, to the vehicle's hull. Soil mechanics and suspension tests were carried out on specially prepared soil lanes assimilating most of the soils found in South Africa. The test area was prepared by the Potchefstroom University who also co-ordinated the tests. (1979)

TRUCK PERSONNEL, MINE PROTECTED, ‘HIPPO’ Mk 1R (RSA)

Seating: 2 + 10

Mass Empty: 8,8 mt

Armament: Twin-mounted 7,62 mm Browning Machine-guns

Engine: Bedford, 6 Cyl in-Line, Liquid Cooled, Diesel; 80 kW (107 hp) at 2 800 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical - Single Plate - Dry Type stGearbox - Manual - 1 Gear Crash nd rd th 2 , 3 and 4 Synchronized 4 Fwd 1 Rev Selectable 4x4; High or Low range

Speed: 73 km/h

Operating Range: 640 km


The “Hippo” was the first mine protected vehicle produced in South Africa, built on a modified Bedford truck (1961) chassis. These vehicles were an interim solution and were not popular with the troops, being slow and cumbersome. Although not favoured, the vehicles fulfilled their task. This Mk1-M series based on the 1970 Bedford chassis, replaced the “R” series of which 150 (1974) were produced for the South African Police, and were used in South West Africa /Namibia. A further 120 were manufactured for the SADF. The vehicle was withdrawn from service in 1978. To date South Africa is the leading manufacturer of mine protected vehicles. Vehicle displayed is waiting for refurbishing.

ARMOURED CAR, ELAND Mk 7/60 (RSA)

Crew: 3

Combat Mass: 5.3 mt

Armament: 60 mm Breech Loading Mortar; 2 x 7,62 mm Browning Machine-gun;

Ammunition: High Explosive, Smoke, Canister and Illuminating Bombs;

Engine: General Motors; 2,5 litre; 4 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 65 kW (87 hp) at 4 600 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Single Plate; Dry Type; Hydraulically Operated; Gearbox - Manual; Constant Mesh; Low and High range 6 Fwd 1 Rev Configuration - 4x4; Limited slip, Differentials

Speed: Road 90 km/h - Cross Country 30 km/h

Operating Range: Road 450 km - Cross Country 240 km


The Eland Armoured Car started out as the Panhard AML 245, manufactured in France. The first vehicles were delivered to the French Army in 1961. A total of over 4 000 variants were manufactured by France. The AML was also manufactured under licence in South Africa by Sandock-Austral Ltd with the first manufactured vehicle being delivered to the South African Army in 1964. This was one of the first major arms programmes, hastened by the imminent arms embargo, to be undertaken by South Africa since World War Two (1939-1945). These vehicles were referred to as VA (Vehicle A) Mk 1/60. By 1970, after many local modifications and, with a local content of over 80%, the Panhard was renamed the ‘Eland’. The Eland 60 Armoured Car was extensively used in patrolling the border between Namibia (South West Africa) and Angola. They were also involved in convoy and mine-lifting escort duties. On other occasions they were also used as mobile base protection vehicles for road construction teams. They were also used in cross-border operations as close fire-support vehicles. The 60 mm Mortar Turret was later fitted onto Ratel Infantry Combat Vehicles to lend more mobility over the 4x4 Eland weapon platform. The turret is still extensively used on the Ratel 60 Infantry Combat Vehicle.

TRAILER, LOW-BED, ROGERS, MODEL D-45-L-F1 (USA)

Mass Unloaded: 3,9 mt

Carrying Load: 40 mt

Length: 9,8 m

Width: 2,75 m

Height: 1,5 m

Tyres: 8,25 x 15 -in (24 tyres at 8 per set)

Suspension: Front wheels - 4 wheels coupled to a double coil spring articulating axle system Rear wheels - 8 wheel stations coupled to a rocking beam axle system


The trailer manufactured by Pointer-Willamette Co, Portland, Oregon in the USA was designed to be towed by the Diamond “T” prime mover for transporting tanks Servicing the trailer was difficult due to its low ground clearance. Service personnel used to tip the trailer onto its loading bed (via the tractor’s winch). Once tipped the trailer was serviced.

SCOUT CAR, 4X4,LIAISON, FERRET Mk 1 (BRITAIN)

Crew: 2

Combat Mass: 4.2 mt

Armament: 7,62 mm Bren Light Machine-gun; 2 x Smoke Grenade Dischargers;

Engine: Rolls Royce; B60 Mk 3A or Mk 6A; 6 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled; Gasoline 89 kW (120 hp) at 3 750 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Fluid Coupling Gearbox - Daimler; Pre-Selective; Epicycle; 5 Speed; Gear change pedal Transfer Box - Forward or Reverse Configuration - 4x4

Speed: Road 80 km/h - Cross Country 40 km/h

Operating Range: Road 306 km - Cross Country 160 km


In 1947 the British army issued a requirement for a scout car to replace the Daimler ‘Dingo’ scout car used during the Second World War. Daimler was awarded the contract and the first prototype Mk 2 version was delivered for Trials in 1950. After Trials it was adopted for service with the British army and was named the ‘Ferret’. The first production Ferret Mk 2 was completed in mid - 1952 and the first Mk 1’s later in the same year. Production of the Ferret was finally completed in 1971 by then, 4 409 vehicles of all types had been built. Through various circumstances the Ferret remained in service with the British army until the 1990’s. South Africa received their first eight Mk 2 Ferret’s in 1954 which were evaluated at the Army Gymnasium Pretoria. On completion of the evaluation, South Africa purchased a total of 231 Ferret’s, 151 Mk 1’s and 80 Mk 2’s. Most of the vehicles were placed in storage to form part of the Centurion and Saracen Armoured Regiment’s equipment. A quantity were used for training until 1989 when they were eventually phased out and replaced with the Eland Armoured Car.

ARMOURED COMMAND VEHICLE (CANADA)

Seating: 2 +3

Combat Mass: 4,5 mt

Engine: GMC 270; 6 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled, Gasoline; 77,5 kW (104 hp) at 3 000 r/minbr/>
Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Mechanical; Crash Type; 4 Fwd 1 Rev Configuration - 4x2 Selectable 4x4; High or Low Range

Speed: Road - 90 km/h

Operating Range: Road - 386 km


Originally designed during the Second World War as a light reconnaissance vehicle but was found unwieldy and cumbersome. The original design, manufactured by General Motors Corporation, Canada, was referred to as Car Light Reconnaissance, M1L1, Otter, 4x4. Production was stopped and the standard chassis, drive line and cab was maintained. A thin armoured body was fitted thus producing an armoured command vehicle. It was fitted with tables, chairs, map boards and wireless sets. The vehicles were mostly used in North-Africa. Further information with regard to this particular vehicle, at this stage is still unknown.

ARMOURED RECONNAISSANCE CAR Mk IV (SA)

Crew: 3

Combat Mass: 6.7 mt

Armament: 2 Pr (40 mm) Mk IX or Mk X Gun; .30 -in Browning Machine-gun;

Ammunition: Only Armour Piercing ammunition in the earlier stages was available

Engine: Ford; 90 V; 8 Cyl; Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 71 kW (95 hp) at 3 600 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual; Selective Sliding; Crash Type 4 Fwd 1 Rev Selectable 4x4; High or Low Range

Speed: Road 80 km/h - Cross Country 30 km/h

Operating Range: Road 322 km - Cross Country 193 km


When the Second World War broke out the South African Union Defence force possessed two obsolete armoured cars (Ford Crossley’s). Eventually 4 566 armoured cars were produced to the order of the South African Union Defence force plus 1 180 vehicles to the order of the United Kingdom, making a total of 5 746 armoured vehicles being delivered during the period July 1940 to April 1944. This Mk IV version employed basically the same Marmon-Herrington Ford (Canada) components, but for the first time built around a gun instead of the Boys .55 -in anti-tank rifle and .303 -in Vickers machine-gun. A grand total of 2 116 Mk IV (1 180 Mk IVF not used in South Africa) were built, but were not in time to be used in the North-African Campaign. They however performed useful service in the forces of the colonial territories, allied forces, including free Greeks and Arab legions. In South Africa they formed part of the South African Armoured Corps Reconnaissance units until the early 1970’s when they were withdrawn. To date they serve as monuments in honour of the South African's War Industry. (2 Pr / 40 mm)

LIGHT TANK, STUART M3A1 ‘HONEY’ (USA)

Crew: 4

Combat Mass: 12,9 mt

Armament: 37 mm M6 Gun - 3 x 30-in Browning Machine-guns

Ammunition: AP/T; APC/T; HE/T, Canister

Engine: Continental; W 670 Series 9A; 7 Cyl; Air Cooled; Gasoline; 186 kW (250 hp) at 2 400 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Multi Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual; Synchromesh Type; 5 Fwd 1 Rev Controlled Differential Combining Steering and Brakes

Speed: Road 50km/h - Cross Country 32km/h

Operating Range: Road 120km - Cross Country 80km


This light American built tank was designed to supply Allied Forces with tanks during the North African Campaign. They were widely used by the British Armoured Corps. The M3A1 production started in 1942 with a total production of 4 621 units being built. These M3A1 tanks were used all over the world during the Second World War. The Stuart Light tank was christened with the nickname “Honey” by Robert Crisp, a young South African officer serving in the 3rd Royal Tank Regiment in North-Africa. On answering a question on how the tank performed he answered “she’s a honey”, affectionately known to this day. These tanks were used by for reconnaissance, during the Italian Campaign. South Africa received 88 Honey’s on lease-loan, directly from the USA in 1943. These tanks were later purchased by South Africa. The M3A1 formed part of the South African Armoured Corps Tank regiments and were used for reconnaissance. During 1955 the tanks were withdrawn from service and placed in storage until 1961. They were brought back into service, after refurbishing in 1962, and again used for training, until 1964. Training consisted mainly of troop training, being more cost effective than the Sherman and Centurion tanks. Through lack of spares, ect. the tanks were finally withdrawn in 1968. the 6th South African Division

SELF-PROPELLED ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILE SYSTEM, SA-13, 'GOPHER' (USSR)

Weapon Platform MT-LB (TELAR 2) Crew: 3-4

Combat Mass: 12.5 mt

Armament: 4 x SA-13 Missiles ready for launch; 16-20 reloads; Pintle - Mounted 7,62 mm Machine-gun

Engine: Ya MZ-238V; V-8 Cyl; Liquid Cooled; Diesel;179 kW (240 hp) at 2 100 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Multi Plate Gearbox - Manual; 4 Fwd 1 Rev Steering - Manual; Clutch and Brake

Propulsion in water: Specially designed tracks; Stabilizing vanes at rear-end of tracks; Trim vane; front-end limited steering by tracks

Speed: Road 62 km/h - Cross Country 25 km/h - Water 6-8 km/h

Operating Range: Road 400 km - Cross Country 190 km

Missile System Model: ZRK-BD Strela 10 System. In Soviet service the SA-13

Range: High Altitude; 500-10 000m; Low Altitude; 500-3 200m (4 000m max)


The fully amphibious NBC, equipped SA-13 ‘Gopher’ mobile low-altitude surface-to-air missile system with a range-only radar was first deployed in the mid 1970s. The system is replacing the far less capable SA-9 Gaskin/BRDM-2 system to improve the mobility of the anti-aircraft batteries in the Soviet Motorised Rifle and Tank Divisions. The SA-13 was introduced into the group of the Soviet East Forces in the spring of 1980. The SA-13 system is based on the weapon platform of the MT-LB Multi-purpose tracked vehicle which was developed in the late 1960’s. Acquired as “Spoils of War” during the conflict in Angola 1987/1988. This vehicle was destroyed by 20 mm cannon fire. German

MECHANIZED INFANTRY COMBAT VEHICLE, BMP-1 (USSR)

Crew: 3 + 8

Combat Mass: 13,5 mt

Armament: 73 mm - 2A28 Grom Smooth-bore Gun 7,62 mm PKT Machine-gun Anti-tank Guided Missiles (9M 14M Malyutka) At - 3 Sagger

73 mm Ammunition: HEAT; HE; (All rounds Rocket Assisted)

Engine: Model 5D 20;6 Cyl in-Line; Liquid Cooled; Diesel; 224 kW (300 hp) at 2 000 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Multi Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual; 5 Fwd 1 Rev Steering - Manual; Clutch and Brakes

Propulsion in water: Special Designed Tracks; Trim Vane Front-end

Speed: Road 80km/h - Cross Country 40km/h - Water 6-8km/h

Operating Range: Road 500km - Cross Country 300km


The BMP-1 (Boevaya, Mashina Pekhota) was developed in the early 1960s as the replacement for the BTR-50 P series of tracked Armoured Personnel Carriers and was seen in public for the first time during the 1967 November parade in Moscow. In 1979 production of the BMP was running at some 2 000 vehicles a year. Production of the BMP-1 may have been completed in favour of the more recent BMP-2 (1982), although it could still be produced for export. The viability of the BMP on the conventional battlefield was first tested in the 1973 Middle East War. Egypt received 230 of these vehicles. The Egyptians used a small number of these vehicles for the initial water crossing of the Suez Canal. The Syrians also received between 150 -170 of these vehicles in 1973. The Syrian assessment after the war was “the BMP’ was like a Mercedes Benz when we really needed a simple Ford.” The vehicle is fully amphibious being propelled in the water by its specially designed tracks (water scoops). The vehicle is NBC protected. This vehicle was acquired as “Spoils of War” during the conflict in Angola 1987/88.

ASSAULT VEHICLE ROYAL ENGINEERS, 'CHURCHILL' (BRITAIN)

Crew: 5

Combat Mass: 35.4 mt

Armament: 290 mm; Mortar; Recoiling Spigot Petard; 2 x 7,92mm BESA Machine-guns; .303-in BREN light machine-gun; 2-in Bomb Thrower.

Demolition Bomb: Popular name 'Flying Dustbins'; Mass 18,1kg; Range 73,1m

Engine: Vauxhall Bedford; 12 Cyl; Twin Six Cyl; In-line; Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 261 kW (350 hp) at 2200 Rpm

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Merrit Brown; Epicycle; 4 Fwd 1 Rev Neutral Turn

Speed: Road 25 km/h - Cross Country 15 km/h

Operating Range: Road 193 km - Cross Country 95 km

Unique Feature: Hull-Positioned side entrance escape hatches


The Churchill Mk 1 was born and various variants were produced from the Mk 1 right up to the Mk XI. The obvious adaptability of the hull, its roomy interior and heavy armour made it eminently suitable for conversion into a variety of special purpose vehicles. Of these the most famous was the AVRE. The construction of this vehicle and standarised fittings permitted the vehicle to be used in a number of variants. A total of 5 640 Churchill variants were built during World War Two. The Churchill AVRE has been produced from the standard fighting vehicle (Mk iii and Mk iv) by removing the 6 pr (57 mm) gun and ammunition stowage racks, and fitting a number of items of special equipment. It could carry a large Facine for anti-tank ditch filling, a small box girder bridge for surmounting a sea wall or provide egress from an invasion beach it also carried a bobbin which unrolled a mat so providing a firm track over areas of soft ground. This is one of the two Churchill AVRE’s purchased by South Africa from Britain, which arrived in South Africa circa 1946.

CRUISER TANK, COMET 1 (BRITAIN)

Crew: 5

Combat Mass:29,9 mt

Armament: 77 mm Mk 2 gun; 2 X 7,92 mm BESA Machine-guns; 2 -in Smoke Bomb Thrower; 2 x Rear Smoke Emitters

Ammunition: APCBC/T; APDS/T; HE; Smoke

Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor Mk 3; V12; Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 447 kW (600 hp) at 2 550 r/min

Transmission: Clutch -Twin-plate; Dry Type; Hydraulically Operated; Gearbox Manual; Change-speed; Constant Mesh 5 Fwd 1 Rev; Neutral Turn Steering Drums; Gear Trains; Hydraulically Operated Brakes -Track Drums; Hydraulically Operated Road

Speed: 52 km/h - Cross Country 35 km/h

Operating Range: Road 177 km - Cross Country 89 km


The Comet was the last British built tank type to enter service before the ending of the Second World War, although it’s planned successor, the Centurion, was just starting trials. Comets served the British Army well from their introduction in 1945, to well into the 1960s. In essence the Comet was a redesigned Cromwell tank. A feature of the design was the fitting of the 77 mm gun firing the same projectile as the 17 pr gun, but with a smaller cartridge case. The Comet was extremely agile in all respects of speed, acceleration, changing direction and of course the neutral or pivot turn. A further feature was the spaced armour of the hull side plates. The gun itself was extremely accurate. In 1953 South Africa purchased 26 Comet tanks and on arrival in 1954 were immediately transported to a storage depot at Amanzijama, Durban. The first course conducted on the tanks in 1964 was for the training of South African Armoured Corps instructors. The Comets were withdrawn from service in 1968.

UNIVERSAL CARRIER, T16 (CANADA)

Crew: 2 (Remainder dependent on role)

Mass Empty: 3,51 mt

Maximum Load: 764 kg

Engine: Ford; V-8 Cyl; 90o L-head; Liquid Cooled; Gasoline; 74,5kW (100hp) at 3 800 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Single Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual; Crash Type; 4 Fwd 1 Rev Steering - Tiller Barrs; Brake Drums; Differential; Track Brake Drums Brakes - Mechanical; Foot; Track Brake Drums

Speed: Maximum 53 km/h

Operating Range: Road 300 km


One of the most widely used and recognisable light armoured vehicle of World War Two must be the British Universal Carrier, known popularly as the “Bren Carrier”. However, there were in fact many varieties of this ubiquitous little vehicle. The vehicle stems from World War One light Dragon gun tractors and supply carriers. The spin-offs was from the development work done by Vickers (Pty) Ltd in the 1930's. South Africa received 96 Mk 2’s in 1946 and a further 150 refurbished Mk2’s (25) and T16 (125) from Britain in 1951/52. The vehicles were phased out in October 1965. The vehicle were manufactured in Britain and Ford of Canada.

TANK MEDIUM, SHERMAN M4/105 (USA)

Crew: 5

Combat Mass: 31,5 mt

Armament: 105 mm M 2A1 or M 4 Howitzer; 2 x .30 -in Browning Machine-guns; .50 -in Browning Machine-gun; 2 -in Bomb Thrower;

105 mm Ammunition: HEAT/T; HE/T; Smoke; Smoke WP

Engine: R-975-C1; Continental; 9 Cyl; Radial Air Cooled; Gasoline; 298 kW (400 hp) at 2 400 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Multi Plate; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual Synchromesh Type; 5 Fwd 1 Rev Controlled Differential Combining Steering and Brakes

Speed: Road 39 km/h - Cross Country 25 km/h

Operating Range: Road 160 km - Cross Country 100 km


By the summer of 1943, the list of required modifications for the Sherman greatly increased. These changes resulted from battle experience with the earlier models as well as data produced by the development and test programmes. This 105 mm howitzer version of the M 4 was assembled at Detroit tank arsenal in February 1944 with a total of 1 641 built. Production was stopped in March 1945. This version of the Sherman tank was also used by the tank regiments of 6th South African Armoured Division and played a vital role in Italy, as mobile artillery during the winter season when towed artillery guns were bogged down. These tanks known in South Africa as the ‘Sherman 1B’ were purchased from Britain. Fifteen arrived in South Africa in 1946. The tanks were used for training and were phased out in 1965.

T-72 MI MAIN BATTLE TANK, (POLAND)

Crew: 3

Combat Mass: 41,5 mt

Armament: 125 mm 2A 46 (D-81TM) Smooth-Bore Gun; 7.62 mm PKT Machine-gun; 12,7 mm DshKM Machine-gun; 12 x 81 mm Smoke Grenade Launcher;

125 mm Ammunition: APFSDS/T; HEAT-FS/T; HE-FS;

Engine: Model V46-6; V-12 Cyl; Liquid Cooled; Multi-fuel; Diesel; 575 kW (780 hp) at 2 000 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Multi Plate; Hydraulic Pressure Gearbox - Two units; Epicycle; Gear train; Five Pressure Clutches; Hydraulic Selection; 7 Fwd 1 Rev Steering - Tiller Bar; Pressure clutches; Hydraulic Pressure Brakes - Mechanical; Pressure clutches; Hydraulic pressure

Fording: Unprepared 1,4 m - Prepared 5,5 m (Snorkel)

Speed: Road 60 km/h - Cross Country 45 km/h

Operating Range: (Without Additional Fuel Drums) Road 480 km - Cross Country 300 km


Initial production of the T-72 tank began in 1972 at the Urals Military town of Nizhni Tagil in the USSR. It is the most widely deployed main battle tank of the current generation. The first country outside Europe to begin manufacturing the T-72 was India. They are presently (1993) producing the T-72 M I with some 900 tanks known as the ‘Ajeya’. Five variant designs were manufactured with the last USSR version being the T-72 BM. The T-72 variant manufactured in Poland and Czechoslovakia as the T-72 had no equivalent in the Soviet Army. Production in Poland was undertaken at the Bumarlabedy plant in Gliwice. The T-72 has seen combat in many recent conflicts, including the 1982 invasion of Lebanon, the Iran Iraq war, the 1991 Gulf war and the Yugoslav Civil war. The T-72 M I on display is one of the two purchased by South Africa from Poland for evaluation. The evaluation trials ‘Operation Carbenet’ took place between 5 March and 18 May 1990. in February 1990

T 34/85 MEDIUM TANK (USSR)

Crew: 5

Combat Mass: 32 mt

Armament: 85 mm ZIS-S-53 Gun; 2 x 7,62 mm SGMT Machine-guns;

85 mm Ammunition: AP/T; APHE/T; HVAP/T; HEAT/T; HE

Engine: Model V-2-34 or V-2-34M; V-12 Cyl; Liquid Cooled ; Diesel; 373 kW (500 hp) at 1 800 r/min

Transmission: Clutch - Mechanical; Dry Type Gearbox - Manual; 4/5 Fwd 1 Rev Steering - Manual Clutch and Brake

Speed: Road 55 km/h - Cross Country 30 km/h

Operating Range: (Without Additional Fuel Drums) Road 300 km - Cross Country 309 km


The T34/85 made it’s appearance on the Russian front in March 1944, with total production in that year of 11 050 units. By the end of 1950 Russia produced a total of 44 380 units. During 1951, 56 Warsaw Pact countries produced a further 4 572 units. Given the sheer number of T34/85’s manufactured, its not surprising that they have been sold or supplied to more than 30 different states. Surprisingly more than 27 armies employed these tanks, though many are on the verge of retirement. It is considered by many to be the best all-round tank of the Second World War. Several armies have captured T34/85’s as “Spoils of War”, including Israel and South Africa (as this one on display), but did not integrate them into their own armed forces.

MAIN BATTLE TANK CENTURION Mk 5, 'SKOKIAAN' (BRITAIN/RSA)

Crew: 4

Combat Mass: 52,5 mt

Armament: 20 Pr (84 mm) MkI/I Gun; 7,62 mm Browning Machine-gun; 2 x Smoke Grenade Dischargers;

20 Pr mm Ammunition: APCBC/T; APDS/T; HE; Canister; Smoke;

Engine: Continental - AVI-1790-8;12 Cyl; 90 V; Air Cooled ; Fuel Injection; Gasoline; 604 kW (810 hp) at 2 800 r/min

Transmission: Allison - CD-850-5; Semi-Automatic with Torque Converter Low; High; Reverse and Neutral Turn Combination of Steering and Brakes

Speed: Road 50 km/h - Cross Country

Operating Range: 25 km/h Road 90 km - Cross Country 40 km


During 1968 the first attempt to overcome the problems encountered in South Africa with the Centurion tank (over-heating, spares etc.) was not made easy as South Africa had been placed under a United Nations arms embargo. The first modification upgrading took place with the installation of a 372 kW (500 hp), V12, Detroit diesel, model V71 two-stroke diesel engine. The second modification/upgrading took place in 1973 with the fitting of a Continental fuel-injection engine and a three-speed Allison Semi-Automatic transmission. Modifications took place at 61 Base Workshop, Pretoria, in-corporation with Armscor. This project was registered as ‘Project Skokiaan’ and three prototypes were built. Evaluation trials of these three prototype Centurions took place in Walvis Bay Namibia (SWA), and in Bloemfontein in 1973. The upgrading was not successful as the existing fuel tank layout could not cater for the high fuel consumption of the engine resulting in a poor operating range. A grand total of eleven tanks were modified. Nine were deployed on the Angolan Border in 1976. The project was terminated in 1974 with the start of ‘Project Semels’. The ‘Skokiaan’ on display is the original first prototype to be built (R90587).